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How Long Shaft Forgings are Manufactured

How Long Shaft Forgings are Manufactured  

Long shaft forgings are produced through forging processes, creating rough or machined parts. The technology to manufacture long shafts is known as "open-die forging," where heated metal is placed on a fixed anvil, and then the die is "dropped" onto it to change its shape. Due to the nature of this process, it is commonly known in the public as the Smith forging process. The general steps of the open-die forging process are as follows:  
Initially, the metal is formed into the shape of a long shaft, primarily by securing the heated metal on an anvil and compressing it with horizontal or vertical molds to form a cylindrical shape. This step is crucial as it provides structural stability and enhances the physical strength of the long shaft forgings. The subsequent step involves setting dimensional standards, where the simultaneous action of multiple molds shapes the cylindrical metal rod to the required length, thickness, and shape. Appropriately sized molds are used to deform the bar along its length, providing the anticipated thickness of the long shaft forging. Hence, trimming and calibrating processes are applied to the billet. Here, the material ends are concentrated using concave molds, and thin sheets are stamped onto the billet using convex molds.  
Flattening facilitates increased production, very similar to any other machining process, and is the final modification process. In this process, newly forged metal samples are smoothed to provide them with a neat surface finish. Even though it might not produce perfect parts, it will undoubtedly reduce the secondary processing costs of producing long shaft forgings.  

**Manufacturing Process of Shaft Forgings**  
Before forging shaft forgings, the forgings are heated, and different materials require different heating temperatures and times. Therefore, it is crucial to control the quality of steel billet heating, checking before heating whether the material number, furnace number, size specifications, and quantity meet the process card and are suitable for the forging material. Before installing the steel billet, clean the debris inside the furnace.  
The surface of steel billets heated in an electric furnace must not be contaminated with oil. When steel billets are loaded into the furnace, they should be placed in the working area. To ensure uniform heating of the billet, larger billets should be used with spacing, and the billets should be arranged neatly. When heating in an electric furnace, billets should be kept away from the heating element, or shielding measures should be taken to prevent metal from overheating. The thickness of the oxide scale and decarburization layer during billet heating for axle forging should meet the requirements of the axle forging process. It is not permissible for billets to be overheated, burnt, or internally cracked during heating; cooling or removing from the furnace are acceptable methods if they comply with procedural requirements.

The process of producing shaft forgings, where the metal undergoes plastic flow to form the desired shape. The forging manufacturing process includes cutting the forging billet, heating, and pretreatment before shaping. After the forging is formed, it is cut using a lathe, and its properties are improved through heat treatment. Then, the forging is precision-machined according to the drawing, undergoes surface treatment, and is packaged for shipment.  

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